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Sunday, July 2, 2017

Setup ELK 5 (ElasticSearch 5, Logstash 5, Kibana 5)

11:07:00 AM Posted by Satish Kumar , , , , , No comments

Phot Courtesy - medium.com
I will install ELK stack that is ElasticSearch 5.2.x, Logstash 5.2.0 and Kibana 5.2.x on my macOS. We will also configure whole stack together so that our logs can be visualized on single place using Filebeat 5.4.3.

What is ELK stack?

ELK stack is a combination of three services: ElasticSearch, Logstash and Kibana. ElasticSearch is an open source, distributed, Restful text based search engine. In ELK stack, it is used to store logs, so that they can be easily searched and retrieved. Logstash is an open source tool for collecting, parsing, and storing logs for future use. Kibana is a web interface that can be used to search and view the logs that Logstash has indexed.

ELK Stack (Photo Courtesy - digitalocean.com)

Why ELK stack?

Centralised logging is useful when you have a critical website running on multiple servers. Manually searching logs on different servers takes lots of time to debug the problem. ELK stack allows you to search through all server logs at one place, hence makes debugging easy and timeless. With ELK stack you can identify issues that span multiple servers by correlating their logs during a specific time frame.

Usage of tools

  • ElasticSearch: Stores all the logs.
  • Logstash: Processes incoming logs from different sources. We will use the log files here.
  • Kibana: Web interface for searching and visualizing logs, which will be proxied through Nginx web server.
  • Filebeat: Log shipping agent, will be installed on servers, that will send logs to Logstash. For simplicity I will be installing Filebeat in my local machine.

Prerequisites:

  1. Any server machine like windows, mac or Ubuntu. I am using my local MacOS.
  2. 2 GB RAM and 2 CPU.
  3. Java 8 Or latest

Downloads:

As I am installing the ELK stack in my MacOS, I am downloading the compressed binaries. In case of Ubuntu you can use the debian installers to install. You may also use homebrew to install in MacOS.

Please down load the binaries from the specified locations. You need to download the one specific to your OS.

Post download extract each package and place that to /opt/. In addition, I have also changed the owner of the folders to current user.

Configure Elasticsearch

Post installation do the following changes to the configuration file /opt/elasticsearch/config/elasticsearch.yml

Find the line that specifies network.host, uncomment it, and replace its value with localhost so it looks like this:

network.host: localhost

you can start Elasticsearch from /opt/elasticseatch/bin.

./elasticsearch

Configure Kibana

Post installation do the following changes to the configuration file /opt/kibana/config/kibana.yml

Find the line that specifies server.host, and replace the IP address ("0.0.0.0" by default) with localhost. This setting will allow Kibana to be accessible from localhost only. This is fine because we will use an Nginx reverse proxy to allow external access.

server.host: "localhost"

you can start kibana from /opt/kibana/bin.

./kibana

Install Nginx

Since, we configured Kibana to listen on localhost, we will set up a reverse proxy via Nginx to allow external access to it. You can also do the same using apache httpd. Here I will be using homebrew to install the same.

brew install nginx

After installation run the following command to start Nginx server

sudo nginx

Open the url and hit the following url to check the installation.


The default path of configuration file nginx.conf  in mac is

/usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf

You may replace the server part of the configuration file with the below.

server {
        listen 80;

        server_name localhost;

        auth_basic "Restricted Access";
        auth_basic_user_file htpasswd.users;

        location / {
                proxy_pass http://localhost:5601;
                proxy_http_version 1.1;
                proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
                proxy_set_header Connection 'upgrade';
                proxy_set_header Host $host;
                proxy_cache_bypass $http_upgrade;
        }
}

now restart nginx and hit the below URL to open Kibana UI.


Configure Logstash

Post installation create a new file logstash.conf in /opt/logstash/config and add the following configuration.

input {
  beats {
    port => 5044
  }
}
filter {
  if [type] == "syslog" {
    grok {
      match => { "message" => "%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:syslog_timestamp} %{SYSLOGHOST:syslog_hostname} %{DATA:syslog_program}(?:\[%{POSINT:syslog_pid}\])?: %{GREEDYDATA:syslog_message}" }
      add_field => [ "received_at", "%{@timestamp}" ]
      add_field => [ "received_from", "%{host}" ]
    }
    syslog_pri { }
    date {
      match => [ "syslog_timestamp", "MMM  d HH:mm:ss", "MMM dd HH:mm:ss" ]
    }
  }
}
output {
  elasticsearch {
    hosts => ["localhost:9200"]
    sniffing => true
    manage_template => false
    index => "%{[@metadata][beat]}-%{+YYYY.MM.dd}"
    document_type => "%{[@metadata][type]}"
  }
}

You may create individual files for each of these three categories. In the runtime, all the configuration files will be get merged to one content.

You can go to /opt/logstash/bin and run the following command to start the logstash process.

./logstash -f ../config/logstash.conf

Load Kibana Dashboard

Here, we will load filebeat index pattern in kibana dashboard. For this, download the file into your home directory.

cd ~
curl -L -O https://download.elastic.co/beats/dashboards/beats-dashboards-1.2.2.zip

Install the unzip package to extract above downloaded package

unzip beats-dashboards-*.zip

cd beats-dashboards-*
./load.sh

It will load four index patterns that are as follow:

  • packetbeat-*
  • topbeat-*
  • filebeat-*
  • winlogbeat*

When we start using Kibana, we will select the Filebeat index pattern as our default.

Load filebaet index template in ElasticSearch

Since we will be using filebeat to ship logs to ElasticSearch, we need to load filebeat index template. For this, download filebeat index template into your home directory.

cd ~
curl -O https://gist.githubusercontent.com/thisismitch/3429023e8438cc25b86c/raw/d8c479e2a1adcea8b1fe86570e42abab0f10f364/filebeat-index-template.json

Then load this template

curl -XPUT 'http://localhost:9200/_template/filebeat?pretty' -d@filebeat-index-template.json

If everything will be fine, you will see the output "acknowledged: true".

ELK server is all setup. Now we will need to setup file beat on the source server to send logs to ELK server. I will use my local machine for the same. But practically you need to install filebeat agent in all the servers, from where you what to pull logs for analysis.

Configure Filebeat

Post installation uncomment the following changes to the configuration file /opt/filebeat/filebeat.yml

filebeat.prospectors:
paths:
    - /var/log/*.log
output.logstash:
hosts: ["localhost:5044"]

Change the owner of filebeat.yml to root.

Start Filebeat using the following command.

sudo filebeat -e -c filebeat.yml

To test our filebeat installation, On ELK server run this command

curl -XGET 'http://localhost:9200/filebeat-*/_search?pretty'

Since, filebeat on client server is sending logs to our ELK server, you must get log data in the output. If your output shows 0 total hits then there is something wrong with your configuration. Check it and correct it. Now, continue to the next step.

Setup Kibana dashboard

Browse your ELK server's  IP into your browser. Now you will see the Kibana dashboard, prompting you to select default index pattern.

Go ahead and select filebeat-* from the Index Patterns menu (left side), then click the Star (Set as default index) button to set the Filebeat index as the default.

Now click the Discover link in the top navigation bar. By default, this will show you all of the log data over the last 15 minutes. You should see a histogram with log events, with log messages. Now, you have all the logs at once place. Congrats, you have successfully setup the ELK 5 stack!

Defaulting to an index

Discover Logs
Apart from Filebeat there are other beat products to extract different other purposes. We can configure them to get the real time status of the infrastructure.